Russian Archaeologists Unearth Legendary White Walls of Memphis

By The Rundown Live

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April Holloway | Ancient-Origins

According to Manetho, an ancient Egyptian historian and priest of the 3rd century BC, Memphis once carried the name Ineb-hedj, meaning ‘White Walls’. Some historians maintain that the city was named by the founder of Memphis, pharaoh Menes, who built a fortress of white walls. Others suggest the city was named after the pharaoh’s palace, which would have been built of white-washed brick, while another theory is that the white walls refer to the enormous walls around the Temple of Ptah, the largest and most important temple in ancient Memphis. Now, in a remarkable new discovery, a team of Russian archaeologists have unearthed parts of the legendary white walls, offering hope that the finding may pave the way to a greater understanding of this ancient and important city.

Memphis is a city and capital of ancient Egypt, which is located south of the Nile River delta and approximately 15 miles (24 km) sounds of Cairo. According to Manetho’s accounts, the city was founded more than 5,200 years ago by the pharaoh Menses, who was said to have united the two prehistoric kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt. During its golden age, Memphis thrived as a regional center for commerce, trade, and religion.

Monuments from the ancient city of Memphis.

Monuments from the ancient city of Memphis. (Credit: Gabriel Indurskis / Flickr)

According to local belief, Memphis was under the protection of the god Ptah, patron of artisans and a creator god, who was believed to have created humans through the power of his heart and speech. The great temple of Ptah was one of the city’s most prominent structures, and some historians maintain that the ancient name of the city owes its origin to the white walls of the temple.

Artist's depiction of the white walls of the Great Temple of Ptah at Memphis.

Artist’s depiction of the white walls of the Great Temple of Ptah at Memphis. (Public domain)

Today, the ruins of Memphis offer only fragmented evidence of its past, and much about its history still remains unknown, including the true origin of its ancient name. But all this may be about to change as the Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities has just announced the discovery of segments of the legendary white walls.

The Cairo Post reports that the discovery was made by a team of Russian researchers, led by archaeologist Galina Belova, near the town of Mit Rahina, 20 kilometers south of Cairo and near Saqqara, which was the necropolis of Memphis.

The famed stepped Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara, the Memphis necropolis

The famed stepped Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara, the Memphis necropolis (public domain)

“Several white limestone fragments of the ancient capital’s wall were discovered during excavation work carried out by an archaeology team of the Russian Institute of Egyptology at Kom Tuman, south of Giza Pyramids,” Antiquities Minister Mamdouh al-Damaty said in a statement Saturday. “We hope this finding will enhance our knowledge of one the most important cities of Ancient Egypt. Memphis played a significant political, religious and economic role in the history of the country. One of its names was Inbu-Hedj, or the White Walls.”

Ms Belova reported that along with parts of the white wall, they also found well-preserved remains of stoves and bronzes, and that they are currently searching for other parts of the wall.

We will be working to unearth the rest of the wall, as well as any archaeological elements which could help us to know more about this early period of Egyptian history,
Belova told the Cairo Post.

The research team has not yet released photographs of their findings.

Featured image: Mennefer (Memphis), was called the city of the “White Walls” for the enormous walls around the Temple of Ptah compound.

By April Holloway

Read more here:: Russian Archaeologists Unearth Legendary White Walls of Memphis


Eight Impressive but Terrifying Cases of Ancient Surgery

By The Rundown Live

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April Holloway | AncientOrigins

It is hard to fathom the way in which invasive surgery was carried out prior to the development of modern anaesthesia, but ancient people around the world have been cutting and drilling into the human body for thousands of years. Here we look at eight impressive but terrifying cases of ancient surgery, from rhinoplasty to leg surgery, dental implants, and brain surgery, in some cases dating back an incredible 11,000 years.

Ancient Cranial Surgery: Practice of Drilling Holes in the Cranium Found in Dozens of Skulls in Peru

Ancient Cranial Surgery: Practice of Drilling Holes in the Cranium Found in Dozens of Skulls in Peru

In 2012, archaeologists excavating burial caves in the south-central Andean province of Andahuaylas in Peru discovered the remains of 32 individuals dating back between 750 and 1000 years and, incredibly, they found evidence of 45 separate surgical procedures on the skulls of the individuals.

Cranial surgery, known as trephination, is one of the first ever surgical practices and is known to have begun in the Neolithic era. It involves drilling a hole in the skull of a living person to cure illness such as convulsions, headaches, infections or fractures.

The skulls found in Peru show evidence that sections of the cranium were removed using a hand drill or a scraping tool. Some of the remains showed evidence of their hair having been shaved and a herbal remedy placed over the wound, which all point to the fact that this was an attempt to heal sick or injured individuals.

2,000-year-old trepanation surgery in ancient Siberia

2,000-year-old trepanation surgery in ancient Siberia

In February, 2015, Russian scientists examined ancient human skulls and tested bronze tools on a modern skull to see how doctors in Siberia more than 2,000 years ago performed brain surgery on three adults. It is still unknown what anesthetic, if any, was used to dull the pain during the surgery.

The researchers believe the surgeries were carried out using the same principles as those found in the Hippocratic Corpus, which requires strict adherence to medical ethics and techniques. Hippocrates wrote the oath around 500 B.C.

The ancient doctor or doctors who performed the surgeries did them at a location on the skull that minimized damage to the brain and assured longer survival. Remarkably, it appears one of the men lived for years after the trepanation surgery because some of the bone grew back.

From jewel-capped teeth to golden bridges – 9,000 years of dentistry

From jewel-capped teeth to golden bridges – 9,000 years of dentistry

Dentistry, in some form or another, has been practiced for at least 9,000 years, although tooth extraction and remedies for tooth aches probably go back much further. The study of ancient remains from around the world has demonstrated the ingenuity that existed in the application of surgical and cosmetic dental practices going back many millennia.

The Indus Valley Civilisation has yielded evidence for the earliest form of dentistry, which dates back to 7000 BC. Sites in Pakistan have revealed dental practices involving curing tooth related disorders with bow drills operated, perhaps, by skilled bead craftsmen. The reconstruction of this ancient form of dentistry showed that the methods used were reliable and effective.

Evidence of successful brain surgery and ancient pharmaceutical warehouse found in Turkey

Evidence of successful brain surgery and ancient pharmaceutical warehouse found in Turkey

In December, 2014, archaeologists unearthed evidence of ancient surgery among the remains of people who lived in a settlement near Istanbul, Turkey, between the 11th and 6th centuries B.C. A skull, buried among the many remains undergoing excavation in the location of the ancient Roman city of Bathonea, was found to have been cut into, and examinations showed the patient survived the apparent surgery.

Excavation team member and forensic science expert Ömer Turan sasid: “The skull of this person, who is over the age of 30, was cut very regularly by medical workers, just like today’s brain surgeons. It is a painful process to open the skull. A person cannot tolerate this pain and should be anaesthetized, so this type of operation in such an early era makes us think there was a kind of anesthesia. Biological studies on the bones will enable us to find out which substance was used. The traces of recovery are apparent in the place of operation.”

Over 400 small bottles were also unearthed on site. Chemical examination revealed that these terracotta unguentarium had contained methanone, phenanthrene, and phenanthrene carboxylic acid. Study showed the bottles had been filled with the mixed chemicals deliberately, added with the use of specific calculations. These findings, and the quantity of bottles, led Turan and the excavation team to surmise the location was the equivalent of a pharmaceutical production center.

The Sushruta Samhita and Plastic Surgery in Ancient India, 6th century B.C.

The Sushruta Samhita and Plastic Surgery in Ancient India, 6th century B.C.

Plastic surgery seems to be an invention of the modern age. The desire to attain physical beauty is no doubt one of the factors that has contributed to the popularity of this procedure. Yet, plastic surgery is not a new development. One of the earliest instances of plastic surgery can be found in the Sushruta Samhita, an important medical text from India. The Sushruta Samhita is commonly dated to the 6th century B.C., and is attributed to the physician Sushruta. The Sushruta Samhita’s most well-known contribution to plastic surgery is the reconstruction of the nose. The process is described as such:

“The portion of the nose to be covered should be first measured with a leaf. Then a piece of skin of the required size should be dissected from the living skin of the cheek, and turned back to cover the nose, keeping a small pedicle attached to the cheek. The part of the nose to which the skin is to be attached should be made raw by cutting the nasal stump with a knife. The physician then should place the skin on the nose and stitch the two parts swiftly, keeping the skin properly elevated by inserting two tubes of eranda (the castor-oil plant) in the position of the nostrils, so that the new nose gets proper shape. The skin thus properly adjusted, it should then be sprinkled with a powder of licorice, red sandal-wood and barberry plant. Finally, it should be covered with cotton, and clean sesame oil should be constantly applied.”

First Ever Evidence for Ancient Bone Surgery found in Peru – Holes Drilled in Legs

First Ever Evidence for Ancient Bone Surgery found in Peru - Holes Drilled in Legs

Drilling holes in the head, otherwise known as trepanation, is the earliest surgical technique known. In January, 2015, researchers discovered the first example of the drilling technique used on other body parts in pre-Columbian Peru. Marks were identified on two skeletons found at the pre-Columbian site of Kuelap, in north-eastern Peru. The bones of the individuals, dated to 800–1535 AD, displayed evidence of having undergone drilling techniques on their legs in a manner similar to trepanation. It is thought this was done to treat a possible lower leg infection, and this is a rare find.

The two skeletons from the Kuelap site in Peru were male, one aged 30 to 34 years old, the other an adolescent. Examinations revealed the pair were seemingly healthy overall, without major stresses detected on the bones. However, the depth and placement of the drilled holes suggest the surgeries were done to relieve pressure from an injury or infection which caused a build-up of fluid in the leg.

11,000-year-old site of Asikli Hoyuk in Turkey reveals early brain surgery

11,000-year-old site of Asikli Hoyuk in Turkey reveals early brain surgery

The ancient Neolithic settlement of Asikli Hoyuk (Aşıklı Höyük) boasts many important discoveries. Excavations have revealed crucial information on the history of brain surgery, early mining, astounding craftsmanship, and human transitions from nomadic to sedentary lifestyles. The site continues to astound archaeologists and visitors alike as it reveals the secrets of the original inhabitants dating back to 9000 B.C., even after 25 years of modern excavation.

In a recent dig, archaeologists found skulls at Asikli Hoyuk demonstrating the earliest-known brain surgery. Trepanation, or drilling holes into the skull in an attempt to relieve or cure ailments or mental illness, has been found on a number of skulls at the site, astounding researchers.

Archaeologists discover 2,300-year-old dental implant in Iron Age burial chamber

Archaeologists discover 2,300-year-old dental implant in Iron Age burial chamber

A study in May, 2014 revealed the discovery of an Iron Age tooth implant among the remains of a Celtic woman in northern France. The implant is the oldest of its kind discovered in western Europe.

The finding was made in a 2,300-year-old richly furnished burial chamber in Le Chene, France. The iron implant, which is the same size and shape as incisors from her upper jaw, was found alongside the rest of her teeth. It is believed that the iron pin was covered with a wooden- or ivory-carved tooth

By April Holloway

Read more here:: Eight Impressive but Terrifying Cases of Ancient Surgery


Bulgarian Archaeologists find Evidence of 2,700-Year-Old Thracian Child Sacrifice

By The Rundown Live

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Mark Miller | Ancient-Origins

Archaeologists excavating ritual pits in southwest Bulgaria have found the remains of two children that had been sacrificed about 2,700 years ago. The remains indicate that they had been crushed to death with stones.

The Bulgarian archaeologists are digging in a city that dates back nearly 8,000 years.

“The ancient Thracian child sacrifice found in one of the numerous ritual pits at the site of the prehistoric settlement near Mursalevo was committed about 2,700 years ago; it is dated to the 6th century BC,” reports Archaeology in Bulgaria.

Archaeologists excavating the prehistoric site are cleaning the children’s crushed skulls and have also found a shoulder bone from one of them.

Excavations at the early Neolithic settlement near Mursalevo in Southwest Bulgaria.

Excavations at the early Neolithic settlement near Mursalevo in Southwest Bulgaria. Photo: Bulgaria’s Road Infrastructure Agency

“Inside the Thracian ritual pit, they have found several stones that are believed to have been used in the human sacrifice ritual. The pit is yet to be further excavated,” the blog states. “About 20 such ritual pits in which the Ancient Thracians placed artifacts or food as sacrifice to their gods, or sacrificed animals or humans, have been found on top of the Early Neolithic city near Mursalevo.”

In fall 2014 they found the skeleton of a calf that the Thracians had sacrificed. They pointed the calf’s head down so it could bleed out. Next to the calf was a knife.

Archaeologists were called in to investigate the area when the government planned to extend a highway. Twice the government postponed construction work to give the archaeologists more time to excavate and investigate the settlement, the origins of which date to about 5,800 BC. People have asked the government to change the route of the highway so it does not destroy the site.

The town occupied about 1.6 hectares (4 acres), so it is the prehistoric settlement with the largest area under excavation in southeast Europe, according to the Archaeology in Bulgaria blog. The settlement had three parallel streets and several smaller streets running perpendicular. Each perpendicular street had three to four houses.

The people built their homes of clay and plant stalks. Walls were 20 cm (7.87 inches) thick. Researchers think the people deliberately burned the dwellings for some reason by stacking firewood inside and lighting it. They also believe the ancient people thought the vicinity of the settlement was sacred.

Researchers have found ceramic goddess figures, a button and needle, a golden earring and another grave with a skeleton in the fetal position. They have found four graves in total and about 20 ritual pits.

number more than 20 near the settlement. Only four burials have been found.

Ritual sacrifice pits number more than 20 near the settlement. Only four burials have been found. (BGNES)

The excavations are being carried out under the direction of Professor Vasil Nikolov of the National Institute and Museum of Archaeology of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.

Signs of human habitation in Bulgaria go back to the Middle Paleolithic of 100,000 to 40,000 BC. “Agricultural communities, though, appeared in the Neolithic Period (New Stone Age), and in the Bronze Age the lands were inhabited by Thracian tribes. The Thracians were eventually expelled or absorbed by Greek, Persian and Roman colonies, but traces of their culture remain in their monuments devoted to horse worship and in the mummer (Bulgarian: kuker) tradition that still survives in southwestern Bulgaria,” says Encyclopedia Britannica.

Map showing ancient Thracian territory

Map showing ancient Thracian territory (Wikipedia)

The Thracians were great horseman and poets, artisans, musicians and advanced metalsmiths. They were Indo-European people who lived at the juncture of Greece, Persia and Anatolia. They did not have a political organization until the fifth century BC but earlier probably lived in fortified villages. Thracian lands were occupied by Persians, Greeks and then Romans, and they were at war through much of their history.

Featured image: The ritual pit in which the children were crushed by stones (BGNES photo)

By Mark Miller

Read more here:: Bulgarian Archaeologists find Evidence of 2,700-Year-Old Thracian Child Sacrifice


New Study Confirms Mindfulness Meditation as Effectice as Big Pharma

By The Rundown Live


Derrick Broze | ANTIMEDIA

The Oxford University study Big Pharma doesn’t want you hearing about.

A new study published in The Lancet medical journal has found that Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) may be just as effective as pharmaceuticals when it comes to preventing chronic depression relapse.

Researchers at Britain’s Oxford University and Plymouth University Peninsula Schools of Medicine and Dentistry conducted the first large-scale study to compare the treatment of chronic depression with MBCT and anti-depressants. They found very little difference in the results of the two different treatments, including a minimal difference in the cost of the mindfulness training versus the constant use of pharmaceuticals.

MBCT combines traditional Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) methods with psychological strategies such as mindfulness and mindfulness meditation. Mindfulness is the practice of becoming aware of, and accepting of incoming thoughts without attaching or reacting to them. The practice is common among most meditation practices. MBCT was designed to help those suffering from chronic depression to learn to respond constructively to their emotions.

The researchers studied 424 adults with recurrent major depression who were on maintenance anti-depressant drugs. The adults were randomly told to either continue taking their medications or to wean of the pills and receive MBCT. The mindfulness group participated in daily home practice as well as eight group therapy sessions. After two years, both groups reported nearly identical relapse rates – 44 percent for the meditators and 47 percent for the pill poppers.

“These results suggest a new choice for the millions of people with recurrent depression on repeat prescriptions,” Willem Kuyken of Oxford University told Reuters

The study offers some hope for those who suffer from depression yet do not want to become another supporter of the Pharmaceutical Industrial-Complex. With more than 350 million people worldwide diagnosed with depression, we hope that more people will opt for meditation over pills.

Meditation is Medicine

This new study is only the latest in a long line of research that has established the benefits of meditation. In February of 2015 a study was conducted by the Maharishi University’s Institute for Natural Medicine and Prevention found that regular meditation may prevent work-related stress and exhaustion. Participants reported falling stress levels, and more energy within days of practicing Transcendental Meditation twice a day for four months. The study, published in the Permanente Journal, observed participants stress levels before and after meditation, as well as patients who did not participate. Those who meditated registered lower levels of stress.

Another study found that long-term meditation can lead to a smaller amount of age-related decreases in brain volume. Typically a brain’s gray matter decreases as a person ages. However, the study published in Frontiers in Psychology found that those who reported meditating for an average of 20 years had higher brain mass than the average person. Lead researcher Dr. Florian Kurth said his team can not say for certain that meditation directly caused patients to lose less brain volume. Still those involved in the study who were long time meditators seemed to have better-preserved brains than the average people of the same age.

Also in February the JAMA Internal Medicine published a study suggesting that mindfulness meditation practice may help older people who have trouble sleeping. Researchers at the University of Southern California examined 49 people who were at least 55 years old and suffered from moderately disturbed sleep. They split the participants into two groups, one underwent six weekly two-hour sessions of a course in Mindfulness Awareness Practices for daily living, and the other attended six weeks of a sleep hygiene and education course. The group that learned mindfulness meditation practices made improvements at a higher rate than the sleep hygiene group.

Studies also suggest that meditation can also be used to treat addiction. Researchers with the Center for the Study of Health and Risk Behaviors at the University of Washington in Seattle found that mindfulness meditation may be a better long-term treatment for substance abuse than traditional approaches. The study found that one year after patients experienced substance abuse treatment that included mindfulness training they were more likely to stay sober than those who had undergone traditional therapy or a 12 step program.

All meditation “requires” is a willingness to open one’s heart and mind. To be still, in the moment and listen. Sometimes messages of extreme importance find their way to your awareness, other times the simple quiet is enough to bring your mind, body, and spirit back into balance.

This article (New Study Confirms Mindfulness Meditation as Effectice as Big Pharma) is free and open source. You have permission to republish this article under a Creative Commons license with attribution to the author and Tune in to the Anti-Media radio show Monday through Friday @ 11pm Eastern/8pm Pacific. Help us fix our typos:

Author: Derrick Broze

Derrick Broze is an investigative journalist, community activist, gardener and promoter from Houston, Texas. He is the co-founder of The Houston Free Thinkers, and The Conscious Resistance Network. Broze also hosts and produces a weekly podcast under the name the Conscious Resistance Live. His writing can be found on , The Liberty Beat, the Anti-Media, Mint Press News, and Ben

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Ferdinand Magellan: Defying all Odds in a Voyage around the World

By The Rundown Live

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dhwty | Ancient-Origins

The historical figure Ferdinand Magellan was a Portuguese explorer who remains famous for the first circumnavigation of the earth, proving that the earth is round. However, the voyage was dogged by misfortune, storms and mutinies, and Magellan himself did not actually complete the trip.

In 1453, the death knell was sounded for the aging Byzantine Empire when its capital, Constantinople, fell to the Ottoman Turks under Mehmet II. One of the consequences of the rise of the Ottoman Empire was that European overland trade to Asia was now limited. Moreover, the exotic goods of the East were monopolized by Arab merchants, and were sold at extremely high prices to the Europeans. This contributed to the European Age of Discovery, as one of the goals of maritime exploration was the finding of an alternative route to the East.

In 1488, the Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Diaz succeeded in reaching the Indian Ocean from the Atlantic by sailing around the southern tip of Africa. 10 years later, his compatriot Vasco da Gama followed Diaz’s route, and arrived in India.

Apart from the Portuguese, the Spanish also began exploring the oceans. Christopher Columbus, an Italian explorer serving the Spanish crown, believed that the East could be reached by sailing westwards. Although Columbus eventually ‘discovered’ the New World – in actual fact, other foreigners had been there before him – he insisted that it was part of the Asian continent. Columbus’ idea that the East could be reached by sailing west seemed far-fetched to many of his contemporaries. Yet, there were also those who were inspired by this outrageous notion. One of them was the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan, who made an attempt to reach Asia by sailing west 13 years after Columbus’ death.


Portrait of Ferdinand Magellan

Portrait of Ferdinand Magellan. Public Domain

Initially, Magellan served under the Portuguese crown. Later, however, he left Portugal and headed for Spain. On March 22, 1519, Magellan managed to convince the Spanish king Charles I to support his voyage to the Spice Islands. Magellan was provided with five ships for his voyage – the Trinidad, San Antonio, Conception, Victoria and Santiago. In addition, Magellan was also promised a fifth of the profits acquired through their looting and pillaging along the way.

Nao Victoria, Magellan's boat replica in Punta Arenas, Chile.

Nao Victoria, Magellan’s boat replica in Punta Arenas, Chile. Wikimedia Commons

According to the records written by Antonio Pigafetta, Magellan began his journey from Seville on August 10 of the same year. It was only later in September, however, that Magellan sailed from Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Spain, and entered the Atlantic. From there, Magellan set sail to Brazil, then a Portuguese colony, and entered the Rio de Janeiro (a river, not the city founded in 1565) on December 13. They stayed there until December 26 before setting sail again. From Brazil, Magellan and his men sailed southwards along the South American coast in search of the fabled passage that would lead them into Asia.

Portrait traditionally associated with Antonio Pigafetta

Portrait traditionally associated with Antonio Pigafetta. Public Domain

In March 1520, Magellan was forced to anchor for the winter at Port San Julian, off the coast of Patagonia in southern Argentina for the winter. During this time, a mutiny broke out, but Magellan managed to quell it by executing a mutinous captain, and leaving another mutinous captain behind. Around the same time, the Santiago was sent to scout the route ahead, though it was shipwrecked by a storm. The surviving crewmembers were rescued, and assigned to the remaining ships. Five months after anchoring at Port San Julian, Magellan continued his journey.

On October 21, 1520, the passage to the East was finally found, and it took Magellan 38 days to navigate this body of water before exiting the Atlantic, and entering the Pacific. During the early days of navigating this strait, the crew of the San Antonio forced its captain to abandon the expedition, and fled back to Spain.

Initially, the passage was named the Strait of All Saints, as Magellan’s ships entered the strait on November 1, observed as “All Saints’ Day” in the Christian religion. Not long after, the passage was given its present name, the Strait of Magellan, in honor of the man who discovered it.

Map showing the Strait of Magellan.

Map showing the Strait of Magellan. Public Domain

During the next leg of the journey, Magellan reached the Pacific island of Guam, where he replenished his food supplies. Magellan then landed in the Philippines, where he met his death at the Battle of Mactan on April 21, 1521. Lapu-Lapu, a chief on the island of Mactan in the Philippines, is credited with resisting and defeating the invaders.


Following Magellan’s death, the two newly elected expedition leaders were betrayed and killed at a banquet hosted by a local king. Consequently, the task fell on Juan Sebastian Elcano’s shoulders to bring the men back to Spain via the Indian Ocean. As there were not enough men, Elcano decided to burn the Conception, so as to prevent in from falling into the hands of the natives. On their way home, the Trinidad was seized by the Portuguese, and the Victoria was the only ship that made it back to Spain. In all, only 18 of the original 270 men were remaining when they finally landed in Spain on September 6, 1522.

Nevertheless, history would remember Magellan’s voyage as the first successful circumnavigation of the globe.

The Magellan–Elcano voyage. Victoria, one of the original five ships, circumnavigated the globe, finishing 16 months after the explorer's death.

The Magellan–Elcano voyage. Victoria, one of the original five ships, circumnavigated the globe, finishing 16 months after the explorer’s death. Wikimedia Commons

Featured image: An anonymous portrait of Ferdinand Magellan, 16th or 17th century. Public Domain. Victoria, the sole ship of Magellan’s fleet to complete the circumnavigation. Detail from a map by Ortelius, 1590. Public Domain. Deriv.


Briney, A., 2015. Ferdinand Magellan. [Online]
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Pigafetta, A., The First Voyage Round the World, by Magellan [Online]

[Lord Stanley of Alderley (trans.), 1874. Pigafetta’s The First Voyage Round the World, by Magellan.]

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Szalay, J., 2014. Biography, Ferdinand Magellan: Facts &. [Online]
Available at:, 2014. Ferdinand Magellan (1480 – 1521). [Online]
Available at:, 2015. Ferdinand Magellan Biography. [Online]
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By Ḏḥwty

Read more here:: Ferdinand Magellan: Defying all Odds in a Voyage around the World


5 Eco-Friendly Ways to Put the Green in Your Garden

By The Rundown Live

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NaturalBlaze | TheRundownLive

We’ve all become a little more eco-conscious and most of us are aware that limiting our use of toxic chemicals will help the environment. This thinking can be extended to our garden and there are a few simple but cost-effective ways to maintain your garden and keep the planet safe.

From growing your own food to solar-powered products to eco-friendly patio products – here are five ways to help put the ‘green’ into your garden.

Grown your own food

You can easily start growing vegetables in your garden throughout the year and save money on store-brought vegetables. It doesn’t take a lot of time and effort to plant and grow carrots, peas, lettuce, beetroot and cabbage, and you’ll be surprised how much better they taste when they’re home-grown.

Apples, pears, tomatoes, rhubarb, gooseberries and strawberries are great fruits to grow at home. If you’re short on space there are certain vegetables that can be planted in pots and grown in a garden shed including mushrooms, carrots and bean sprouts.

Home composting

Compost is a vital ingredient towards boosting your lawn and giving your earth a healthy dose of nutrients. If you’ve been throwing your food leftovers straight into the bin then you’re missing out on a good source of free compost.

Left-over fruit, vegetables, tea leaves and coffee grounds, egg shells and even shredded paper can all be transformed into compost. Making your own means you’ll avoid buying chemical-infused fertilizers; to speed up the composting process you can simply add a few earthworms into the mix.

Eco-friendly garden furniture

Illuminating your outdoor areas using solar-powered lamps is not only kind to the environment but it’s a way of reducing your fuel bills as well. If you’re looking to create some pathways or lay a new patio deck then take a look at tiles available made from recycled vehicle tires; easy to lay and inexpensive to purchase.

The garden isn’t just a place for people as feathered visitors often make an appearance, so why not add some recycled glass bird-feeders, which are ornamental and eye-catching?

You can always dig an eco-friendly garden pond using a protective underlay, adding a pond-liner on top of it, then finishing with a layer of sand, to create a simple water feature.

Harvesting water

Instead of using water straight from your home supply why not place a rain barrel in your garden to catch fresh, chemical free water? This can then be used to keep your lawn and vegetables hydrated, or used to wash down greenhouses or the car.

Place a protective screen across the barrel opening to ensure bugs and dirt are kept out.

Keep it natural

Your garden will get along just fine without the need for chemicals contained in commercial weed killers, fertilizers and pesticides. Keep it organic with chemical-free fertilizers or make your own weed-killer with a simple combination of a gallon of vinegar and a tablespoon each of salt and dish detergent.

Your garden and Mother Nature will thank you for your environmentally-friendly gardening efforts, such as growing your own fruit and vegetables. Many of these methods will save you a great deal of money over the long-term too.

Read more here:: 5 Eco-Friendly Ways to Put the Green in Your Garden


7 Signs You Need To Simplify Your Life

By The Rundown Live


Higher Perspective | The Rundown Live

Steve Jobs put it well:
“That’s been one of my mantras – focus and simplicity. Simple can be harder than complex: You have to work hard to get your thinking clean to make it simple. But it’s worth it in the end because once you get there, you can move mountains.” ­

When our lives become too complicated, we enjoy life less. We consume too much. We have too little time and too much stress. What are other signs that it’s time to simplify?

1. Clutter clutter everywhere.

And none of it is particularly useful. Every drawer is full, every closet stuffed, every hanger in use, and ever tabletop is covered in clutter clutter clutter. When you feel like you’ve gotten to this point, it’s time to take some time and go through everything. Pick it up, look at it, and ask yourself, “Do I need this?” Once you’ve finished, your life will be simpler.

2. You have a hole in your pocket.

Figuratively. You find yourself spending so much on food, fun, and everything in between. At the end of the month, the purse strings are pretty tight, right? If this is the case, it’s time to set a budget. Ask yourself if an expenditure is something you want or need.

3. You’re buying too much stuff.

Stuff on top of stuff on top of stuff. The garage is full, every shelf covered, but do you really need all of it? Consider what your money is worth to you. It may be time to put a lid on extra purchasing and maybe throw some things up on Craigslist.

4. You’ve lost your spirituality.

Let me guess, you were more religious or spiritual when you were younger and now it’s fading away, right? Maybe it’s time to rekindle that spirituality. Spend 10-15 minutes of the morning in meditation or reading scripture. Reconnect with your beliefs.

5. You use technology too much.

Hell, I’m guilty of looking at my phone for a half hour in the morning when I wake and in bed before sleep. I know it’s a dumb thing to do but I do it anyway. In times like these, it might be time to restrict yourself. Or myself. It’s good to be connected, but maybe it’s time to shut down for a few hours every day and at night.

6. You feel like you’re rushing.

Always rushing! Rushing through the day, the week, the year, and in the end, your life. We need to make the conscious decision to slow down and prioritize what we do! When we do that, we become more productive.

7. Your multitasking is out of control.

When you multitask, the effectiveness of your work is more limited than it would be if you focused in on one thing at a time. If you simply can’t sit down and give one thing your full attention, it’s probably time to re-evaluate what it is that you’re doing and simplify your day.

The post 7 Signs You Need To Simplify Your Life appeared first on Higher Perspective.

Read more here:: 7 Signs You Need To Simplify Your Life


The Rundown Live #470 Joe Bowman (WI Sports,Mayor,Surveillance)

By TheRundownLive


The Rundown Live #470 Joe Bowman (WI Sports,Mayor,Surveillance) (4/22/15)

The Rundown Live LIVE M-F 8C/9E

On this Tuesday edition of The Rundown Live, Kristan and I go over the sponsors, and the site before we are joined by our guest Joe Bowman, getting into many topics like, Packers football and ports, running for mayor, Surveillance state, plus much more. This one is worth checking out! Make sure you like, recommend and subscribe! Links below!

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The Gaia Hypothesis

By The Rundown Live

The Gaia Hypothesis

How interrelated is life on Earth? Could it be possible that the entire planet is a single superorganism? Tune in and learn more about the Gaia hypothesis.

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Join Ben and Matt to learn the Stuff They Don’t Want You To Know about everything from ancient history to UFOs, government secrets, and the future of civilization.

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Baltimore Police used Illegal Spy Technology Thousands of Times on Citizens

By TheRundownLive


Kristan T. Harris | The Rundown Live

The Baltimore police department is under fire for using a secret invasive technology known as Hailstorm over 4,300 times to illegally spy on local citizens.

The information was leaked when a member of the Police Department’s Advanced Technical Team, Detective Emmanuel Cabreja, testified in court that police own a Hailstorm cell site simulator — the latest version of the stingray — and have used the technology 4,300 times since 2007.

Officer Cabreja admitted to using the device 600 to 800 times in less than two years as a member of the unit.

The device known as Hailstorm acts as a fake cell tower and retrieves all cellphone data in the area allowing local authorities to tack or trace individuals anonymously.

When the information is pressed about the technology in court prosecutors are instructed to drop the case in order to protect the use and secrecy of the surveillance technology.

According to the Baltimore Sun, “the nondisclosure agreement, presented for the first time in court Wednesday, explicitly instructs prosecutors to drop cases if pressed on the technology, and tells them to contact the FBI if legislators or judges are asking questions.”

Defense attorney Joshua Insley prodded Cabreja questioning him about the agreement.

“Does this document instruct you to withhold evidence from the state’s attorney and Circuit Court, even upon court order to produce?” he asked.

“Yes,” Cabreja said.

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